DOI: https://doi.org/10.37987/1997-9894.2018.9(225-6).200368

Ятрогенний остеопороз. Частина ІІІ

N. V. Grygorieva

Анотація


У третій (заключній) частині даного огляду представлений аналіз сучасних літературних даних щодо впливу гормональних контрацептивів на темпи формування й втрати кісткової тканини у жінок різного віку. Продемонстровано вплив агоністів / антагоністів гонадотропін-рилізинг гормону, інгібіторів ароматази, які використовують у комплексному лікуванні онкологічної патології жінок і чоловіків, на показники кісткової тканини, темпи її ремоделювання й ризик остеопоротичних переломів. Представлені загальні підходи до ведення пацієнтів з ятрогенним остеопорозом, а також проаналізовані сучасні стратегії профілактики та лікування глюкокортикоїд-індукованого остеопорозу і остеопорозу, пов’язаного із застосуванням інгібіторів ароматази та агоністів / антагоністів гонадотропін-рилізинг гормону.


Ключові слова


ятрогенний остеопороз; гормональні контрацептиви; агоністи / антагоністи гонадотропін-рилізинг гормону; інгібітори ароматази; глюкокортикоїди; профілактика; лікування

Повний текст:

PDF (Русский)

Посилання


The Impact of Contraceptive Counseling in Primary Care on Contraceptive Use //

J. K. Lee, S. M. Parisi, A. Y. Akers [et al.] // J. Gen. Intern. Med. – 2011. – No. 26

(7). – P. 731–736.

Wiegratz I. Hormonal Contraception – What Kind, When, and for Whom? /

I. Wiegratz, C. J. Thaler // Dtsch. Arztebl. Int. – 2011. – No. 108 (28–29). –

P. 495–506.

Григорьева Н. В. Гормональная контрацепция и костная ткань / Н. В. Григорьева //

Боль. Суставы. Позвоночник. – 2013. – № 1 (9). – С. 39–57.

Bone mineral density in adolescent females using depot medroxyprogesterone

acetate / E. Lara-Torre, C. P. Edwards, S. Perlman, S. P. Hertweck // J. Pediatr.

Adolesc. Gynecol. – 2004. – No. 17. – Р. 17–21.

Oral contraceptive use by teenage women does not affect peak bone mass: a

longitudinal study / T. Lloyd, D. S. Taylor, H. M. Lin [et al.] // Fertil. Steril. – 2000. –

No. 74. – Р. 734–738.

Bone biochemical markers in adolescent girls using either depot

medroxyprogesterone acetate or an oral contraceptive / E. Rome, J. Ziegler,

M. Secic [et al.] // J. Pediatr. Adolesc. Gynecol. – 2004. – No. 17. – Р. 373–377.

Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, oral contraceptives and bone mineral density

in a cohort of adolescent girls / B. A. Cromer, M. Stager, A. Bonny [et al.] // J.

Adolesc. Health. – 2004. – No. 35. – Р. 434–441.

Effect of two kinds of different combined oral contraceptives use on bone mineral

density in adolescent women / L. Gai, Y. Jia, M. Zhang [et al.] // Contraception. –

– No. 86(4). – P. 332–336.

One-year adolescent bone mineral density and bone formation marker

changes through the use or lack of use of combined hormonal contraceptives /

A. D. C. B. Rizzo, T. B. L. Goldberg, T. P. Biason [et al.] // J. Pediatr (Rio J.). – 2018.

– P. S0021–7557(18)30069-X.

Ziglar S. The effect of hormonal oral contraception on acquisition of peak bone

mineral density of adolescents and young women / S. Ziglar, T. S. Hunter // J.

Pharm. Pract. – 2012. – No. 25(3). – P. 331–340.

The effect of past use of oral contraceptive on bone mineral density, bone

biochemical markers and muscle strength in healthy pre- and postmenopausal

women / F. Allali, L. El Mansouri, F. Z. Abourazzak [et al.] // BMC Womens Health.

– 2009. – No. 9. – Р. 31–34.

Bedford J. L. The relationship between 24-hr urinary cortisol and bone in healthy

young women / J. L. Bedford, S. I. Barr // Int. J. Behav. Med. – 2010. – No. 17 (3).

– Р. 207–215.

Oral Contraceptive Use and Bone Density Change in Adolescent and Young

Adult Women: A Prospective Study of Age, Hormone Dose, and Discontinuation /

D. Scholes, R. A. Hubbard, L. E. Ichikawa [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. –

– No. 96 (9). – P. 1380–1387.

A three-year longitudinal evaluation of the forearm bone density of users of

etonogestrel- and levonorgestrel-releasing contraceptive implants / C. MonteiroDantas, X. Espejo-Arce, J. F. Lui-Fil [et al.] // Reprod Health. – 2007. – No. 4. –

P. 11–16.

Bone Mineral Density in Adolescent Females Using Injectable or Oral

Contraceptives: A 24 Month Prospective Study / B. A. Cromer, A. E. Bonny,

M. Stager [et al.] // Fertil. Steril. – 2008. – No. 90 (6). – P. 2060–2067.

Pasco J.A. Oral contraceptives and bone mineral density: a population-based study /

J. A. Pasco, M. A. Kotowicz, M. J. Henry [et al.] // Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol. –

– No. 182. – Р. 265–269.

Oral contraceptives and bone mineral density in white and black women in

CARDIA / K. L. Cobb, J. L. Kelsey, S. Sidney [et al.] // Osteoporos. Int. – 2002. –

No. 13. – Р. 893–900.

Oral contraceptive use and bone mineral density in premenopausal women: crosssectional, population-based data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis

Study / J. C. Prior, S. A. Kirkland, L Joseph [et al.] // CMAJ. – 2001. – 165. –

Р. 1023–1029.

Steroid hormone contraception and bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study

in an international population / D. B. Petitti, G. Piaggio, S. Mehta [et al.] // Obstet.

Gynecol. – 2000. – No. 95. – Р. 736–744.

Status of bone mineral density after the long-standing application of contraception

Depo-Provera / S. Zeman, P. Havlík, J. Zemanová, D. Němec // Ceska Gynekol. –

– No. 78 (1). – P. 116–124.

Modesto W. Prevalence of Low Bone Mass and Osteoporosis in Long-Term Users of

the Injectable Contraceptive Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / W. Modesto,

M.V. Bahamondes, L. Bahamondes // J. Womens Health (Larchmt). – 2015. –

No. 24 (8). – P. 636–640.

Effects of a low-dose and ultra-low-dose combined oral contraceptive use on

bone turnover and bone mineral density in young fertile women: a prospective

controlled randomized study / C. Nappi, A. Di Spiezio Sardo, G. Acunzo [et al.] //

Contraception. – 2003. – No. 67. – Р. 355–359.

Effects of an oral contraceptive containing drospirenone on bone turnover and

bone mineral density / C. Nappi, A. Di Spiezio Sardo, E. Greco [et al.] // Obstet.

Gynecol. – 2005. – No. 105. – Р. 53–60.

A 3 year double-blind randomized controlled study on the influence of 2 oral

contraceptives containing either 20 µg or 30 µg ethinylestradiol in combination with

levonorgestrel on bone mineral density / J. Endrikat, E. Mih, B. Dusterberg [et al.] //

Contraception. – 2004. – No. 69. – Р. 179–187.

Longitudinal evaluation of perimenopausal bone loss: effects of a low-dose

oral contraceptive preparation on bone mineral density and metabolism / M.

Gambacciani, M. Ciaponi, B. Cappagli [et al.] // Osteoporos. Int. – 2000. –

No. 11. – Р. 544–548.

Bone mineral density in young, hypothalamic oligoamenorrheic women treated with

oral contraceptives / C. Castelo-Branco, J. J. Vicente, F. Pons [et al.] // J. Reprod.

Med. – 2001. – No. 46. –Р. 875–879.

Effects of oral contraceptives on body composition and physical performance

in female athletes / A. Rickenlund, K. Carlstrom, B. Ekblom [et al.] // J. Clin.

Endocrinol. Metab. – 2004. – No. 89. – Р. 4364–4370.

Effects of a triphasic combination oral contraceptive containing norgestimate/

ethinyl estradiol on biochemical markers of bone metabolism in young women with

osteopenia secondary to hypothalamic amenorrhea / S. K. Grinspoon, A. J. Friedman,

K. K. Miller [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2003. – No. 88. – Р. 3651–3656.

Oestrogen replacement improves bone mineral density in oligo-amenorrhoeic

athletes: a randomised clinical trial / K. E. Ackerman, V. Singhal, C. Baskaran

[et al.] // Br. J. Sports Med. – 2018. – P. bjsports-2018-099723.

Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A

Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis / O. Altayar, A. Al Nofal, B. G. Carranza

Leon [et al.] // J. Endo. – 2017. – No. 1 (5). – P. 500–511.

The effect of estrogen-progestin treatment on bone mineral density in anorexia

nervosa / N. H. Golden, L. Lanzkowsky, J. Schebendach [et al.] // J. Pediatr.

Adolesc. Gynecol. – 2002. – No. 15. – Р. 135–143.

Vestergaard P. Oral contraceptive use and risk of fractures / P. Vestergaard,

L. Rejnmark, L. Mosekilde // Contraception. – 2006. – No. 73 (6). – Р. 571–576.

Vestergaard P. Fracture risk in very young women using combined oral

contraceptives / P. Vestergaard, L. Rejnmark, L. Mosekilde // Contraception. –

– No. 78 (5). – P. 358–364.

Oral contraceptive use and fracture risk around the menopausal transition /

D. Scholes, A. Z. LaCroix, R. A. Hubbard [et al.] // Menopause. – 2016. – No. 23

(2). – P. 166–174.

Oral contraceptive use and fracture risk-a retrospective study of 12,970 women in

the UK / S. Dombrowski, L. Jacob, P. Hadji, K. Kostev // Osteoporos. Int. – 2017. –

No. 28 (8). – P. 2349–2355.

Steroidal contraceptives: effect on bone fractures in women / L. M. Lopez, D. A. Grimes, K. F. Schulz [et al.] // Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. – 2014. – No.

(6). – P. CD006033.

WHO Statement on Hormonal Contraception and Bone Health,

http://www.who.int/reproductivehealth/publications/family_planning/

hc_bone_health/en/index.html, 2005.

Cancer Treatment–Induced Bone Loss in Women With Breast Cancer and Men With

Prostate Cancer / P. Taxel, E. Aircloth, S. Idrees, C. Van Poznak // J. Endocr. Soc. –

– No. 2 (7). – P. 574–588. DOI: 10.1210/js.2018-00052.

Bone loss following hypogonadism in men with prostate cancer treated with GnRH

analogs / D. Mittan, S. Lee, E. Miller [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2002. –

No. 87. – Р. 3656–3661.

Bone loss after initiation of androgen deprivation therapy in patients with prostate

cancer / S. L. Greenspan, P. Coates, S. M. Sereika [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol.

Metab. – 2005. – No. 90. – Р. 6410–6417.

Bone loss in men with prostate cancer treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone

agonists / S. A. Stoch, R. A. Parker, L. Chen [et al.] // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. –

– No. 86. – Р. 2787–2790.

The prevention of fragility fractures in patients with non-metastatic prostate cancer:

a position statement by the international osteoporosis foundation / L. Cianferotti,

F. Bertoldo, M. Carini [et al.] // Oncotarget. – 2017. – No. 8 (43). – Р. 75646–75663.

Prevalence of osteoporosis in prostate cancer survivors: a meta-analysis /

A. C. Lassemillante, S. A. Doi, J. D. Hooper [et al.] // Endocrine. – 2014. – No. 45

(3). – Р. 370–381.

Cancer treatmentinduced bone loss in breast and prostate cancer / F. Saad,

J. D. Adachi, J. P. Brown [et al.] // J. Clin. Oncol. – 2008. – No. 26 (33). –

Р. 5465–5476.

Hip fractures in men with prostate cancer treated with orchiectomy / P. W. Dickman,

J. Adolfsson, K. Astrom, G. Steineck // J. Urol. – 2004. – No. 172. – Р. 2208–2212.

Risk of fracture after androgen deprivation for prostate cancer / V. B. Shahinian,

Y. F. Kuo, J. L. Freeman, J. S. Goodwin // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2005. – No. 352. –

Р. 154–164.

Risk of fracture in men with prostate cancer on androgen deprivation therapy:

a population-based cohort study in New Zealand / A. Wang, Z. Obertov´a,

C. Brown [et al.] // BMC Cancer. – 2015. – No. 15(1). – Р. 837.

Fracture after androgen deprivation therapy among men with a high baseline risk of

skeletal complications / Y. H. Shao, D. F. Moore, W. Shih [et al.] // BJU Int. – 2013.

– No. 111 (5). – Р. 745–752.

Long-Term Outcomes of Elagolix in Women With Endometriosis: Results From Two

Extension Studies / E. Surrey, H. S. Taylor, L. Giudice [et al.] // Obstet. Gynecol. –

– No. 132 (1). – Р. 147-160.

Results of the ATAC (Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination) trial after

completion of 5 years’ adjuvant treatment for breast cancer / A. Howell, J. Cuzick,

M. Baum [et al.] // Lancet. – 2005. – No. 365. – Р. 60–62.

Improved overall survival in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer

after anastrozole initiated after treatment with tamoxifen compared with continued

tamoxifen: the ARNO 95 Study / M. Kaufmann, W. Jonat, J. Hilfrich [et al.] // J. Clin.

Oncol. – 2007. – No. 25. – Р. 2664–2670.

Switching to anastrozole versus continued tamoxifen treatment of early breast

cancer: preliminary results of the Italian Tamoxifen Anastrozole Trial /

F. Boccardo, A. Rubagotti, M. Puntoni [et al.] // J. Clin. Oncol. – 2005. –

No. 23. – Р. 5138–5147.

Survival and safety of exemestane versus tamoxifen after 2–3 years’ tamoxifen

treatment (Intergroup Exemestane Study): a randomised controlled trial /

R. C. Coombes, L. S. Kilburn, C. F. Snowdon [et al.]; Intergroup Exemestane Study //

Lancet. – 2007. – No. 369. – Р. 559–570.

Randomized trial of letrozole following tamoxifen as extended adjuvant therapy

in receptor-positive breast cancer: updated findings from NCIC CTG MA. 17 /

P. E. Goss, J. N. Ingle, S. Martino [et al.] // J. Natl. Cancer Inst. – 2005. – No. 97. –

Р. 1262–1271.

Five years of letrozole compared with tamoxifen as initial adjuvant therapy for

postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer: update

of study BIG 1-98 / A. S. Coates, A. Keshaviah, B. Thurlimann [et al.] // J. Clin.

Oncol. – 2007. – No. 25. – Р. 486–492.

Switching of postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive early breast cancer

to anastrozole after 2 years’ adjuvant tamoxifen: combined results of ABCSG trial

and ARNO 95 trial / R. Jakesz, W. Jonat, M. Gnant [et al.]; ABCSG and the

GABG // Lancet. – 2005. – No. 366. – Р. 455–462.

Effect of an aromatase inhibitor on BMD and bone turnover markers: 2-year results

of the Anastrozole, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) trial (18233230) / R.

Eastell, R.A. Hannon, J. Cuzick [et al.]; ATAC Trialists’ group // J. Bone Miner. Res. –

– No. 21. – Р. 1215–1223.

Skeletal effects of exemestane on bone-mineral density, bone biomarkers, and

fracture incidence in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer participating

in the Intergroup Exemestane Study (IES): a randomized controlled study /

R. E. Coleman, L. M. Banks, S. I. Girgis [et al.]; Intergroup Exemestane Study

group // Lancet Oncology. – 2007. – No. 8. – Р. 119–127.

Effect of letrozole versus placebo on bone mineral density in women with primary breast cancer completing 5 or more years of adjuvant tamoxifen: a companion

study to NCIC CTG MA.17 / E. A. Perez, R. G. Josse, K. I. Pritchard [et al.] // J. Clin.

Oncol. – 2006. – No. 24. – Р. 3629–3635.

The effect of tamoxifen or exemestane on bone mineral density during the first 2 years

of adjuvant treatment of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer / S. Jones,

C. Stokoe, M. Sborov [et al.] // Clin. Breast Cancer. – 2008. – No. 8. – Р. 527–532.

Changes in bone turnover and in bone mass in women with breast cancer switched

from tamoxifen to exemestane / S. Gonnelli, A. Cadirni, C. Caffarelli [et al.] //

Bone. – 2007. – No. 40. – Р. 205–210.

Effects of third generation aromatase inhibitors on bone health and other safety

parameters: results of an open, randomised, multi-centre study of letrozole,

exemestane and anastrozole in healthy postmenopausal women /

E. V. McCloskey, R. A. Hannon, G. Lakner [et al.] // Eur. J. Cancer. – 2007. –

No. 43. – Р. 2523–2531.

A study of the effects of the aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole on bone

metabolism in postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-positive breast

cancer / F. M. McCaig, L. Renshaw, L. Williams [et al.] // Breast Cancer Res. Treat.

– 2010. – No. 119. – Р. 643–651.

Panday K. Medication-induced osteoporosis: screening and treatment strategies /

K. Panday, A. Gona, M. B. Humphrey // Ther. Adv. Musculoskelet. Dis. – 2014. –

No. 6 (5). – Р. 185–202.

American College of Rheumatology Guideline for the Prevention and

Treatment of Glucocorticoid-Induced Osteoporosis / L. Buckley, G. Guyatt,

H. A. Fink [et al.] // Arthritis Rheumatol. – 2017. – No. 69 (8). – Р. 1521–1537.

update of recommendations on the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoidinduced osteoporosis / K. Briot, B. Cortet, C. Roux [et al.]; Bone Section of the French

Society for Rheumatology (SFR) and Osteoporosis Research and Information Group

(GRIO) // Joint Bone Spine. – 2014. – No. 81 (6). –P. 493–501.

Guidelines for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis /

R. M. Pereira, J. F. Carvalho, A. P. Paula [et al.]; Committee for Osteoporosis

and Bone Metabolic Disorders of the Brazilian Society of Rheumatology,

Brazilian Medical Association; Brazilian Association of Physical Medicine and

Rehabilitation // Rev. Bras. Reumatol. – 2012. – No. 52 (4). –P. 580–593.

Guide for the prevention and treatment of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis

of the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine / M. Sosa Henríquez, M. Díaz Curiel,

A. Díez Pérez [et al.]; Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna // Rev. Clin. Esp. –

– No. 208(1). – P. 33–45.

Arora E. Impact of antiepileptic drugs on bone health: Need for monitoring,

treatment, and prevention strategies / E. Arora, H. Singh, Y. Kumar Gupta //

J. Family Med. Prim. Care. – 2016. – No. 5 (2). – P. 248–253.

Григорьева Н. В. Ятрогенный остеопороз. Часть І. / Н. В. Григорьева //

Ліки України. – 2018. – № 5–6. – С. 30–37.

Osteoporosis in men: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline / N. B. Watts,

R. A. Adler, J. P. Bilezikian [et al.]; Endocrine Society // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. –

– No. 97 (6). – P. 1802–1822.

Pamidronate to prevent bone loss during androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate

cancer / M. R. Smith, F. J. McGovern, A. L. Zietman [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. –

– No. 345. – Р. 948–955.

Randomized controlled trial of zoledronic acid to prevent bone loss in men receiving

androgen deprivation therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer / M. R. Smith,

J. Eastham, D. M. Gleason [et al.] // J. Urol. – 2003. – No. 169. – Р. 2008–2012.

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of zoledronic acid in patients with hormonerefractory metastatic prostate carcinoma / F. Saad, D. M. Gleason, R. Murray [et

al.] // J. Natl. Cancer Inst. – 2002. – No. 94. – Р. 1458–1468.

Effect of once-weekly oral alendronate on bone loss in men receiving androgen

deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a randomized trial / S. L. Greenspan,

J. B. Nelson, D. L. Trump, N. M. Resnick // Ann. Intern. Med. – 2007. – No. 146. –

Р. 416–424.

Raloxifene to prevent gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist-induced bone

loss in men with prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial / M. R. Smith,

M. A. Fallon, H. Lee, J. S. Finkelstein // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2004. –

No. 89. – Р. 3841–3846.

Positive fracture reduction trial of toremifene 80 mg in men on ADT demonstrates

significant fracture risk in untreated placebo group / D. W. Lin, L. S. Marks,

R. A. Morton, D. Rodriguez // J. Urol. – 2009. – No. 181. – Р. 229.

Denosumab in men receiving androgen-deprivation therapy for prostate cancer /

M. R. Smith, B. Egerdie, N. Herna´ndez Toriz [et al.] // N. Engl. J. Med. – 2009. –

No. 361. – Р. 745–755.

Denosumab and bone-metastasis-free survival in men with castration-resistant

prostate cancer: results of a phase 3, randomised, placebo-controlled trial /

M. R. Smith, F. Saad, R. Coleman [et al.] // Lancet. – 2012. – No. 379. – Р. 39–46.

Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss using risedronate: the SABRE

trial / C. Van Poznak, R. A. Hannon, J. R. Mackey [et al.] // J. Clin. Oncol. – 2010. –

No. 28. – Р. 967–975.

Prevention of anastrozole-induced bone loss with monthly oral ibandronate during

adjuvant aromatase inhibitor therapy for breast cancer / J. E. Lester, D. Dodwell,

O. P. Purohit [et al.] // Clin. Cancer Res. – 2008. – No. 14. – Р. 6336–6342.

Zoledronic acid effectively prevents aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in

postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole:

Z-FAST study 36-month follow-up results / A. M. Brufsky, L. D. Bosserman,

R. R. Caradonna [et al.] // Clin. Breast Cancer. – 2009. – No. 9. – Р. 77–85.

Integrated analysis of zoledronic acid for prevention of aromatase inhibitorassociated bone loss in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving

adjuvant letrozole / A. Brufsky, N. Bundred, R. Coleman [et al.]; Z-FAST and ZOFAST Study Groups // Oncologist. – 2008. – No. 13. – Р. 503–514.

Santen R. J. Clinical review: Effect of endocrine therapies on bone in breast cancer

patients / R. J. Santen // J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. – 2011. – No. 96 (2). –

Р. 308–319.

The effect of zoledronic acid on aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss in

premenopausal women with early breast cancer receiving adjuvant letrozole: the

Z-FAST study 5 year final follow up / A. Brufsky, G. Harker, J. T. Beck [et al.] // San

Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, San Antonio, TX, 2009 (Abstract 4083).

Lack of evidence for fracture prevention in early breast cancer bisphosphonate

trials: a meta-analysis / A. Valachis, N. P. Polyzos, V. Georgoulias [et al.] //

Gynecol. Oncol. – 2010. – No. 117. – Р. 139–145.

Effect of denosumab on bone mineral density in women receiving adjuvant

aromatase inhibitors for non-metastatic breast cancer: subgroup analyses of a

phase 3 study / G. K. Ellis, H. G. Bone, R. Chlebowski [et al.] // Breast Cancer Res.

Treat. – 2009. – No. 118. – Р. 81–87.

Randomized trial of denosumab in patients receiving adjuvant aromatase inhibitors

for nonmetastatic breast cancer / G. K. Ellis, H. G. Bone, R. Chlebowski [et al.] // J.

Clin. Oncol. – 2008. – No. 26. – Р. 4875–4882.

Gnant M. Adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer (ABCSG-18): a multicentre,

randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial / M. Gnant, G. Pfeiler,

P. C. Dubsky [et al.]; Austrian Breast and Colorectal Cancer Study Group // Lancet.

– 2015. – No. 386 (9992). – Р. 433–443.

Management of Aromatase Inhibitor-Associated Bone Loss (AIBL) in

postmenopausal women with hormone sensitive breast cancer: Joint position

statement of the IOF, CABS, ECTS, IEG, ESCEO IMS, and SIOG / P. Hadji,

M. S. Aapro [et al.] // J. Bone Oncol. – 2017. – No. 7. – Р. 1–12.

Practical guidance for the management of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone

loss / P. Hadji, J. J. Body, M. S. Aapro [et al.] // Ann. Oncol. – 2008. – No. 19 (8). –

P. 1407–1416.


Посилання

  • Поки немає зовнішніх посилань.